Photograph of OSWALDO GONÇALVES CRUZ (1872–1917), microbiologist and father of Brazilian sanitation. Born in São Luís de Paraitinga, São Paulo State, Cruz specialized in bacteriology at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. He was the founder of the Manguinhos Institute, currently the Oswaldo Cruz Institute. While recognized for his work against yellow fever, which he eradicated from Rio de Janeiro and Belem do Pará, he also established obligatory notification of cases of bubonic plague and distributed anti-plague serum. In addition, he proposed the reestablishment of the obligatory vaccination of children against smallpox. In 1907, Cruz was awarded the Gold Medal of the 14th International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, in Berlin, in recognition of his contribution to improving sanitation in Rio de Janeiro. He died in Petrópolis, Brazil, on February 11, 1917, at only 44 years of age.